Physical Fundamentals of Radiation

  • Radiation refers to the propagation of particles or waves
  • How are these waves created?
  • The electron must be stimulated to “fall down” by external influences
  • E.g. by shocks, by electricity or by heat (green colouring of copper in a candle flame)
  • Which radiation is produced depends strongly on the material (atom)
  • The most important terms for describing radiation are frequency or wavelength

Short wavelength, means high frequency (experiment “in the swimming pool”)

Characteristics of infrared heaters – Basics

  • Every heating system should generate heat, and there are three ways to do this
  • (Heat) convection (circulation) – e.g. exchange of warm air (hairdryer)
  • (Heat) conduction – e.g. slowly getting hotter teaspoon handle in coffee
  • (Thermal) radiation – e.g. the sun can also be felt with closed eyes
  • Example thermos flask: lid (convection), cavity (conduction), mirror (radiation)
  • Normal (gas/oil) heating systems are convective (slow, inefficient)
  • Infrared heaters work with radiation (fast, efficient)
  • The emitted waves still have to be differentiated medically / biologically
  • e.g. X-rays (0.001 μm) can kill
  • e.g. ultraviolet radiation (0.1 μm) can burn the skin
  • e.g. near infrared radiation (2 μm) can promote melanomas

Characteristics of infrared heaters – The water window

  • Which range of infrared radiation is the best?
  • “It’s the nicest thing that warms me the fastest!”
  • Which radiation warms people (90% water) best?

Characteristics of infrared heaters – radiation spectrum

Every hot body radiates Planck’s law:

  • A good infrared heating works between 30 – 230 degrees Celsius.
  • However, most of the radiant energy (area under the curve) is outside the the optimal “water window” from 5 – 9 μm (see red marking)
  • The radiation to the left of it can promote melanomas.
  • The radiation to the right of it is no longer perceived as “so nice and warm”.


Characteristics of the van Hattum film

  • Conversion of 99% of the electrical power of the film into radiation (other films only manage 80-90%)
  • Radiation emitted lies solely in the “water window”, not in front of it, not behind it
  • This means that the feel-good effect in humans is approx. 100% greater than with all other films.
  • I.e. with half the energy the same felt warming!

Advantages of all infrared heaters

  • Comfort gain “It’s instantly warm”
  • Retrofittable, adaptable, individual, flexible
  • Very high efficiency
  • Low installation costs
  • Less energy consumption
  • Space-saving installation
  • Temperature 2-3 degrees lower (perceived heat)
  • The air in the room doesn’t get as dry.
  • mucous membranes do not dry out
  • Prevents mould growth
  • Less susceptible to infectious diseases
  • Infrared heat is healthy and soothing
  • Disinfection of surfaces

Advantages of the van Hattum infrared heater

  • Radiation only in a good “water window”
  • No continuous electromagnetic radiation and no electromagnetic switch-on and switch-off pulses
  • Therefore no interactions with electrical circuits and optimal use near microprocessors (aerospace, automotive)
  • Approval granted for permanent operation to humans and animals (other only as auxiliary heating)
  • Extremely thin, therefore no self-heating
  • High thermal strength
  • Low sheet resistance, therefore hardly any danger of flames
  • Further applications possible in various areas, e.g. air conditioning technology, sound insulation, radiation damping, hot water treatment


  • 70% less energy consumption with the same feel-good factor
    Because: 99% conversion of current into radiation
    Because: Infrared radiation only in the good “water range”.
  • Scientific examination: Infrared and power spectra of the foil completed.
  • Can be used alone alongside sensitive electronics
    Does not emit any other radiation or electrical pulses
  • Scientific examination: Blasting and pulse report of the film available!